Practical guideline on obesity care in patients with gastrointestinal and liver diseases


Patients with chronic gastrointestinal disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), pancreatitis, and chronic liver disease (CLD) often suffer from obesity because of coincidence (IBD, IBS, celiac disease) or related pathophysiology (GERD, pancreatitis and CLD). It is unclear if such patients need a particular diagnostic and treatment that differs from the needs of lean gastrointestinal patients. The present guideline addresses this question according to current knowledge and evidence.


The present practical guideline is intended for clinicians and practitioners in general medicine, gastroenterology, surgery and other obesity management, including dietitians and focuses on obesity care in patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases.


The present practical guideline is the shortened version of a previously published scientific guideline developed according to the standard operating procedure for ESPEN guidelines. The content has been re-structured and transformed into flow-charts that allow a quick navigation through the text.


In 100 recommendations (3XA,33xB,24×0,40xGPP, all with a consensus grade of 90% or more) care of gastrointestinal patients with obesity e including sarcopenic obesity e is addressed in a multidisciplinary way. A particular emphasis is on CLD, especially metabolic associated liver disease, since such diseases are closely related to obesity, whereas liver cirrhosis is rather associated with sarcopenic obesity. A special chapter is dedicated to obesity care in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The guideline focuses on adults, not on children, for whom data are scarce. Whether some of the recommendations apply to children must be left to the judgment of the experienced pediatrician.


The present practical guideline offers in a condensed way evidence-based advice how to care for patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and concomitant obesity, an increasingly frequent constellation in clinical practice.

Published in the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.


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